English | Български
Saturday, 4 December 2021

Gemmology — gemstones — characteristics, classification, specimens, library


characteristics, classification, specimens, library

As gemstones we accept cut specimens of crystals of natural mineral species having a visible transparency and certain durability. From over 4800 known minerals (according to data of the International Mineralogical Association), approximately 150 satisfy the above conditions and form crystals of sufficient size to be cut.

The section ‘Classification’ presents descriptions of 171 different kinds of natural gemstones (106 mineral species). The Nickel-Strunz systematic order (10th edition) is used. Since gemmology does not always follow the systematics of minerals in naming, many popular varieties or just ’names’ are listed.

Quick navigation selector



— In thermally metamorphosed argillaceous sediments and regionally metamorphosed schists, gneisses; in mafic igneous rocks and granites (Anthony et al., 2001—2005). The gemstone bears the name iolite.

The section ‘Repository’ contains data and photos of 760 specimens of gemstones. The smallest is just 1.96 mm (0.02 ct) ruby from Mozambique, and the largest — 70.11 mm (326.60 ct) rock crystal from Africa. Besides there are 8 specimens of synthetic stones.

Gallery view selector

Colour selector
Simple colour schemeredorangey redreddish orangeorangeorangey yellowyellowgreenish yellowyellowish greenslightly yellowish greengreenvery slightly bluish greenbluish greenvery strongly bluish greengreen-blue or blue-greenvery strongly greenish bluevery slightly greenish bluebluevioletish bluebluish violetvioletbluish purplepurplereddish purplestrongly purplish redslightly purplish redcolourlessgreyblack
Kornerupine — specimen 0644

Some exceptional specimens of gemstones from our ‘Repository’

More specimens of gemstones
Jadeite — specimen 0203
Opal — specimen 0211
Zircon — specimen 0212
Hyacinth — specimen 0221

— More from ‘Repository

Currently there are 283 bibliographical references and abstracts to publications with gemmological or mineralogical thematics in the ‘Library’. The section comprises also a glossary with 391 terms.

elbaite — species of mineral; see elbaite in ‘Classification’
emerald — variety of beryl; see emerald in ‘Classification’
enstatite — species of mineral; see enstatite in ‘Classification’
epidote — species of mineral; see epidote in ‘Classification’

Ludwig, C. F., 1804 — A. G. Werners Mineral — System vom Jahre 1803. Erste Klasse Erdige Fossilien. VI. Kalk — Geschlecht — Published in 1804 in ‘Handbuch der Mineralogie nach A. G. Werner’; contains the original description of the mineral anhydrite.
Jasche, C. F., 1817 — Das Rothmanganerz in der Gegend von Elbingerode am Harz — Published in 1817 in ‘Kleine Mineralogische Schriften’; contains the original description of the mineral rhodonite.