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Животинските останки от енеолитния археологически обект край с. Долнослав, Пловдивска област [Animal remains from the Eneolithic site near the village of Dolnoslav, Plovdiv District, South Bulgaria]

Николай Спасов; Николай Илиев; Златозар Боев [Nikolai Spassov; Nikolai Iliev; Zlatozar Boev]

12 November 2001 · volume 13 · pp. 159–179 · PDF [full text]

Abstract: [no abstract available originally]

[Summary]: Ca. 15 000 remains of wild and domestic animals from the Late Eneolithic (5530- 5480*- 60 B. P.) site near the village of Dolnoslav in the foothills of the Rhodope Mountains (Plovdiv District) are studied. The MNI of the large mammals is calculated by the most abundant skeletal elements. Domestic mammals are represented by 5 forms, whue among wild mammals l4 species are established. The domestic pig is similar to the prehistoric East-European pig, having a right cranial profile. Hornless sheep and goats with moderate size untortuouted in the sagital plaine horn cores were bred. The means for measuring the metacarpi and metatarsi indicate that two morphotypes of domestic cattle (brachicerous and longhorn), as well as their bastards, were bred in approximate correlation of 35:12:43. Reconstructing the height in the shoulders, we received similar data. The height varies between 101 and 147 cm (mean 118 cm) like in the native Grey Iskar Cattle. Unlike the Grey Iskar Cattle, the Dolnoslav Cattle showed considerable dimensional variations. Approximately we could refer the individuals of 110-112 cm height to the brachicerous form, while the ones of 125 cm and over are referred to the primitive form. It is most probable that the cattle remains belong to a unconsolidated form from an initial stage of formation. The dog remains have convex mandibles, big carnassial teeth, a largely “broken” frontonasal profile and a large size variation from small to medium-sized dogs. It is probable that the studied specimens were bastards of the primitive forms C. f. “palustris” and C. f. “intermedius”. The size of the dogs estimated by the coefficient of Koudelka varies between 33 and 56 cm. Our data confirm their existence in Europe before 8000 B.P. via the Balkan route of expansion. The primitive large breeds are not a result of human selection, but a result of adaptation to unfavorable conditions (utilisation of the limited scarce food remains - bones etc.) against the reduced influence of the stabilizing selection, as well as the neoteinia. The correlation between wild and domestic mammals does not show a clear dominance of one group over the other. The life of the human population was connected chiefly with the deer and the cattle and also with the wild boar and the domestic pig. The ovicaprini, the roe deer and the dog also have a great significance. Hunting was a common practice in the vicinities of the Late Eneolithic site because the environment was favorable with its forest-mountain habitats. The chammois was a game regardless of its rare occurrence. The carnivores are represented by single finds. The find of Lynx is the 5th subfossil record for Bulgaria. Almost all large mammals are referred to the forest ecological complex, while the openland species are very rare. The deer is the most common mammal in the sample. By their size all specimens belong to a very large population. The wild wide-hoofed horse (Equus germanicus transylvanicus), a Pleistocene relict, was represented by a smaller form and was possibly of a limited number. Mussle shells of Mediterranean origin show contacts between the human population of the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. Birds remains represent 0,06 percents of all studied remains but they constitute 11,1 % of the total species composition. A total of 10 bone fragments of 3 species (Tetrao urogallus, Phasianus colchicus and Ciconia ciconia) were established. Despite the limited species composition, the avian record indicates presence of different natural habitats in the surroundings of the settlement. The Capercaillie is an inhabitant mainly of the conifer forests. The Pheasant inhabits riverine broadleaf forests and forest-scrub habitats in the lower stretches of the rivers. The find of the White Stork shows presence of bogs, swamps and marshes with hydrophylous tree vegetation.

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