[Summary]: The development and enlarging of the mineralogical collections of the National Natural History Museum is traced out through the various stages of its history. The first big collection of minerals was endowed to the Museum and thus the foundation was laid of its Department of Geology. Later on, as a result of the numerous materials collected in the Museum both from the country and abroad, the present-day rich mineralogical exposition was arranged. In 1985, the total amount of listed samples in the Museum counted up to 4628 items, comprising of 692 mineral types and varieties. A schematic presentation is made of the relations of the National Natural History Museum with similar mineralogical institutions all over the world, especially in the countries where the museum materials originated.